Change-Proneness in relation Origin Pawn Ideology among the Degree College Lecturers

August 3, 2011 by  
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Change-Proneness in relation Origin Pawn Ideology among the Degree College Lecturers

The word ‘education’ has a wide connotation and it is very difficult to give its precise definition.  Education was viewed by various persons in various ways and each definition stresses a particular aspect of educative process.

          Adi Sankaracharya and Swamy Vivekananda considered ‘education’ as the means of salvation; Pressey Nunn gave stress to individual perfection, Russel to moral excellence, Kilpatrick and Dewey to usefulness of society.

          Dr.S.Radha Krishnan, the eminent Indian Philosopher stressed that education should be humane and its must include both the training or the intellect and the refinement of the heart and the disciplining of the spirit.

          The great idealist, educational philosopher H.H.Horne considers ‘education as the external process of the superior adjustment of the individual to God as manifested in the intellectual, emotional environment of man’.

          No definition is complete in the sense that each stress importance of a particular aspect.  The definition, which was given by Will Mott ‘Education is the apprenticeship of human life’ is self-explanatory and throws light on the nature of education.

          Education is the influence of a person who holds a vital belief brought to bear on another person with the object of making him also hold that belief.

          Education is empowerment.  It is the key to establishing and reinforcing democracy to development, which is both sustainable and human and to peace founded upon mutual respect and social justice.  Indeed, in a world in which creativity and knowledge plan an ever-greater role, the right to education is nothing less than the right to participate in the life on the modern world (- Amman Affirmation).

Role of Teacher in Educative Process:

          Though education was considered as paediocentric, it is a bipolar process in which the personality of one person influences the other with a view to modify his behavior in order to bring about his all-round development in thought, feeling and action.  A continuous interplay or exchange of ideas between the teacher and the taught takes place.  Central to this interaction process is the teacher.  While education is paediocentric in essence, the teacher still occupies ‘a priorities’ it’s in essence a priori in its essence, the teacher still occupies a priority central role in the learning of a child.

          The identification of able, efficient and well qualified teaching personnel constitutes one of the most important of all educational concerns.  Poor teaching would seem to be a significant contributor on its unfortunate share to the perpetuation of ignorance, misunderstanding and intellectual stagnation.

          The teacher’s personality is desired to be compelling, his methods effective his life, a dedicated mission and his work typifying a sorts of worship.  He needs to be a real lamp-lighter with an ‘excelsior spirit’ never faltering, failing or floundering. As is the teacher so is the school remains undisputed and on the efficiency and extent of education rests the stability and civility of any organized group.

          To live up to the high traditions on the vocation, teacher has to be equipped with professional ability with firm faith in the mobility and educability of human nature with inclusive sympathies and abundant love with equable temper, solft voice and ceaseless struggle for self-improvement.

          In every society and every group each members has some function, which carries with it some power or prestige.  A teachers’ role in the classroom is that of a very active person.  In the idea of Kallen Teachers are custodians of the nations’ human capital, the guardians of nations’ youth, helper of nation’s most precious treasure and the shapers of Nation’s future.  The teacher ought to have been permitted to choose the subject matter elect the method that suited him most, take the assistance of machines where necessary and work under the superivison of his immediate superiors.  Unless the teachers take their participation seriously in the interests of education.  Without fear or favour, there is only very limited improvement.  The teacher should possess liberal outlook and deep learning.  They must learn beyond the textbook and refer many journals and magazines to improve their knowledge, to get acquaint with new innovations in the field and to keep themselves abreast of the latest developments.  The teacher’s influence may operate on the child as he tries to inspire him.  Thus the teacher is child’s friend, philosopher and guide.

          The destiny of India or as a matter of fact in any other country is being shaped in its classroom.  Teacher plays a significant role in providing education for pupil.

          In order words better teaching will result at efficient learning in the process of bringing about development in the pupil, the teacher exerts to bring about change in the behaviour of the pupil in terms of knowledge attitudes, skills and values.

Teaching as a Profession:

          Teachers are there to stimulate interest and create needs, which the child is not aware of himself, it shows the teachers necessity in the learning process.

          Teaching is multifarious job.  Morrison defines ‘teaching as intimate contact between a more mature personality and less mature one which is designed to further education at the latter’.

          The teacher is the kingpin in any educational system.  Favourable attitude of the teacher towards children and teaching will certainly have a desirable benevolent and indelible influence on taught and consequent success of the goals of the education.

          It is the organization of all the pupil-teacher activities involved in the teacher-learning process.  Successful teaching is not a haphazard process nor does it end with the teachers going into the classroom and coming out after the bell has given.

          The destiny of India, as a matter of fact in any other country is being shaped in its classroom.  Teacher plays a significant role in providing education for pupil.  In other words better teaching will result efficient learning in the process of bringing about development in the pupils.  The teacher exerts to bring about change in the behaviour of the pupil in terms of knowledge, attitde and values.  All this to great extent, evidently depends upon the healthy positive attitude of teachers towards teaching.  Thus, the teacher should love his subject and he should love his pupil.  The ideal condition is that he loves both.

          Teaching is a noble profession.   It is, therefore, essential to have a code of professional ethics as guide for the teaching profession.  The basic principles of this should play to all the teachers at the different stages of education.  By quoting Brubacher – ‘if teaching is a profession, then the pupil is the client and professionalism requires that the treatment of the client be for his best interests’.

          In spite of being placed on the highest pedestal in society as the torch bearers and real lamp lighters, in recent years probably no other professional group has been criticized so vehemently or as frequently as the teaching community.

          Society looks down the teaching community as mercenary, unprofessional, irresponsible and as an undevoted band lacking dedication and commitment, which teachers of previous generations were reputed to possess.  Is it true?  If so, to what extent it is true?  Something must be seriously wrong if a particular sizable portion of a community completely lacks any motivation and commitments its profession.  It is rather very frightening to think so many are spending their life time in doing something which has no meaning for them which gives them to sense of satisfaction and personal worth.

          Thus, the efficiency of teaching depends not only along on the mere acquisition of degree and possession of many years of service to his/her credit but also it is evidently depends upon the acquaintances, intelligence, creativity, work orientation, work styles and attitude towards teaching profession and profession of teacher efficiency, which are considered to be vital importance not only to improve efficiency of educative process but also to make a teacher competent with their profession. 

Growing concern about Teachers:

          In spite of the need for Teacher Change-proneness in relation to Origin Pawn Ideology, it is evident sometimes that there has been growing concern about the role of teacher in the classroom.  Though the teachers are placed on the highest pedestal in society as the torchbearers and real lamplighters, in recent years probably no other professional group has been criticized so vehemently or as frequently as the teaching community.

          Recently, however, teachers and their problems have been attracting a great deal of attention throughout the world, especially in USA Teacher Change-proneness and Origin Pawn Ideology have become topics of increasing public and professional concern.  In addition to number of articles that have been appearing in professional journals, some have dedicated entire special issues on the topics – Teacher Change-Proneness and Origin Pawn Ideology.

          Unfortunately there seems to be a dearth of research in India in the related areas of Teacher Change-Proneness and Origin Pawn Ideology.  The number of studies in the related areas mentioned about are only a handful in India as is evident from the First, Second, Third, Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Survey of Research in Education by Buch, M.B., and NCERT (1974, 1979 and 1983, 1991, 1997 and 2006). It is also noticed that very little effort is made to study Teacher Change-Proneness with its correlates like Origin Pan Ideology etc.

Need for the present study:

          Under these circumstances the investigator felt that a systematic study of Teacher Change-Proneness and Origin Pawn Ideology among the Teachers in the Indian context is very much essential.  Identification of major sources of Change-Proneness and Origin Pan Ideology, the extent of the Change-Proneness experienced by the Teachers in relation to their Origin Pawn Ideology is attempted.   Some studies have suggested that there is a positive relationship in relation to other aspects like Job Satisfaction.  This holds good to one’s own working life also.

          An inquiry into the above selected problems will provide us with information, which may be highly valuable for counselors, administrators and above all for teachers themselves to plan coping strategies for preventing the obstacles of Teachers in their Change-Proneness and Origin Pawn Ideology.

          A deep understanding of the present situation has prompted the investigator to take up a humble piece of research to probe into the allied aspects of Teacher Change-Proneness and Origin Pawn Ideology of the teachers in their classroom teaching.

Statement of the Problem:

          Taking the unexplored aspects of Teacher Change-Proneness and Origin Pan Ideology into consideration and with the presumption that there exists a relation between the above aspects of Degree College Teachers, the investigator is interested to undertake the study on the following problem.  Hence, the study is titled as ‘A Study of Change-Proneness in relation to Origin Pawn Ideology among Degree College Lecturers in Vizianagaram District’.

 Scope of the Study:

          No doubt, little research has been done on the teacher Change-Proneness, but very little is advanced.  According to Barr, the evaluation of teachers as well as their efficiency in their teaching should be probed from time to time according to the changing situations in the society.  The present study is designed to make a probe into various components of Teacher Change-Proneness and Origin Pawn Ideology and the effect of probable intervening variables such as Sex, Locality, Qualification, Experience, Age, Marital Status, and Type of Management etc., on it.  It is also intended to study the influence of intervening variables on Teacher Change-Proneness and Origin Pawn Ideology.

          The study is limited to the Teachers working in Degree Colleges in Vizianagaram District.  The investigator conducted the study on the selected sample of Teachers of Degree Colleges in Vizianagaram District.  Vizianagaram District is chosen because this type of study is not carried out so far on the above category teachers.  Vizianagaram is recognized as one of the backward districts of North Coast of Andhra Pradesh from the point of view of both geographical and educational aspects.  It is felt that limiting this study to only Degree College Teachers would be more meaningful because Change-Proneness and Origin Pawn Ideology  are likely to be more prevalent among the Degree College Teachers.

          The purpose of the present study, therefore, is to have a deeper understanding of the Change-Proneness and Origin Pawn Ideology of Teachers in Vizianagaram District taking the various variables into consideration.  Finally, the study tries to discover if any significant relation prevails among the teachers in their Change-Proneness and Origin Pawn Ideology among Degree College Teachers.

Under these circumstances the investigator felt the need of thinking about the possible classification of teachers as free their work style.  How a teacher should be in a puzzling  The teacher at his best should be active not active, must strive rather than as puppet, must his own behaviour rather than have it dedicated by authority.  If such teacher prevails in the society then only the destiny of any country will be shaped in its classroom.  The teacher should perform work in his own style.

The work style of teachers reveals the existence of two types of teachers.  ‘Those who take risk in originating new ideas being self-reliant are termed as origins’.  ‘Those who blindly depend on frame work of rules in the hands of other are terms as pawn’.  The origin feels potent, the pawn feels powerless.  Thus origin – pawn ideology a catchword a novel concept of recent times is of vital importance.  Identifying the significance of the novel, strange competent of origin – pawn ideology whether it is substantiated by the administrator and supported by colleagues of him is really a puzzling question.  To make a probe into their query the investigator felt the need and opted to select the topic.

Change-Proneness:

          Change-Proneness though quite recent in origin with astonishing rapidity has become almost a catch word change-proneness can be defined as a tendency to accept anything which is new, novel to be imbibed in their style or work.  Change-Proneness is state of acceptance of new and creative ideas, which might at times create criticism and failure or result at appreciation and success.  It is a sense of satisfaction, commitment and success in the quest for new techniques, ideals and methods.  Change-Proneness is defined as a state of flux and dilemma brought about by devotion to a cause or a way of life which may promote to result at expected rewards or fails to produce unexpected revolts.

Change-Proneness among Teachers:

          How a teacher should be? Is a puzzling question.  Teacher at his best should be active not reactive, must strive rather than submit he must be author of his behaviour rather than have it dictated kby authority.  The teacher should perform his duties in his own style.  The pattern of functioning of teachers reveals the existence of two categories of teachers – being very flexible in approach, those adopt new strategies and innovative those who may not accept new strategies and implement novel techniques.

          The first category of teachers possesses state of acceptance of creative ideas.  The later fail to own the tendency to accept new strategies with a feeling of fear or failure.  Those who are rigid in their outlook do not take any rick by innovating new learning strategies and their teaching style will be routine.  Those who are flexible, possess a rare quality of distinguished creativity with an inborn talent, they are change prone, ventilate their creative thoughts and successfully satisfy the children in the class.

          Carl Rogers classified all the types of people working in a field into five categories.  They can be described in a parabolic curve.  The first categories are ‘innovators’ – persons with utmost change proneness who always think afresh, accept any changes and invent new strategies by being exemplary.  Second categories are ‘immediate adopters’ who may not think new, but who would adopt and implement any new idea.  Third category are ‘early majority’ normally large in numbers who propagate and follow the successful innovations.  Fourth category is ‘late majority’ who would not like to accept and join the innovation willingly of their own with the compulsion of many, slowly they may join the group, accept the novelty of a strange strategy.  They fifth category is ‘laggards’ persons, who lag behind, will not accept the innovations.  Being rigid they criticize and cause hindrance to the new innovations.

          Now the investigator felt the need of blending the concept of Change-Proneness and Carl Roger’s classification – Innovators and immediate adopters constitute the group of persons with high Change-Proneness.  Early majority constitute moderate change-prone teachers.  The last two categories of Carl Roger’s classification late majority and laggards constitute teachers who possess how change process.

          High change prone and low change prone teachers are opposed to each other in their basic ideologies.  The first category is confident, accepting the challenges.  They have feeling of commitment competence as opposed to the members of second category.  Both of them are exactly theoretically opposite poles and in the continuum scale.  High and low change prone teachers lie at the opposing extremities with moderately change prone teachers scattering in the middle.

Dimensions of Change-Proneness:

          Out of many dimensions of Teacher efficacy, four dimensions are very important.  They are – (1) Innovativeness, (2) Hesitating nature, (3) Consideration and (4) Acceptance of help as was discussed in detail in the earlier chapters.

          No system of education can ever rise higher than the quality of its teachers.  It is generally realized that the teacher plays an important role in any system of education.  However, good the other things are the courses of study, curricula, textbooks etc., and the fact remains that the whole systems would fail if the teaching personnel involved therein are no good.  Of all the different factors, which influence the quality of education and its contribution to national development the quality, competence and character of teachers are undoubtedly the most significant.

          As said in Bhagavad Gita a real teacher possessed the following characteristics absence of pride, freedom from hypocrisy, non-violence, forgiving nature, straight-forwardness, service of the preceptor, purity of mind and body, steadfastness and self-control.  The role of the teacher today is more than ever has become exceedingly crucial in the national attempt to bring about several positive changes in the society and national progress.  The teacher should be at the forefront of our present vigorous quest for advancement.

          It is increasingly realized by all these concerned with the education of children in the country that the standard of education in schools and colleges has considerably fallen.  In any scheme of improvement of the teaching in schools, it is the teacher who has key role to play.  Unless he is a fully competent person, greatly interested and involved in his work and does his job satisfactory, all other efforts that are taken to effect any improvement in the field of teaching are bound to fail.  Therefore, nothing is more important that securing a sufficient supply of high quality recruits to the teaching profession, providing them with possible preparation and creating satisfactory conditions of work in which they can be fully effective.  The University Education Commission (1949) also emphasized the importance of the teachers and his responsibility.

          Education is a natural harmonious development of child’s latent powers and innate talents.  Teacher’s role is pivotal in providing education and to the perpetuation of child’s intelligence and wisdom.  How an individual learns effectively and how a school functions efficiently, really depend upon the classroom instruction a successful mission and classroom lively where the nation’s destiny is shaped.

          To make the nation totally literate, to impart ‘Education for all’ enrolment of masses in schools is predominantly significant but more enrolment of children into school will not suffice to achieve total literacy.  To make real education possible and to retain enrolled masses in classes to improve educational standards, to tap the potentialities of students, the teacher should be not only committed and devoted but also competent and creative.

          Professional Competency is the potential to make educative process effective, with expertise and thoroughness of content, which was fabricated nicely with methodology of teaching with clean exposition précised skill, abundant knowledge and creative mind to improvise low cost, no cost teaching learning material to supplement his teaching (Uday Koundinya, 1999).

          A teacher will enter into the profession with an interaction to prove his caliber.  To satisfy the psychological need of recognition any person will strive hard by using all his energies to make an impression in the work spot with lofty ideals every teacher initiate his profession as lit on candle.  When it is glow on, it can make other lights candle and spread light in the darkness.  As Rabindranath Tagore rightly said that only a burning candle can make other lamps to lit on.  Similarly a teacher who is committed, competent, creative and work with excelsior spirit can drive out the darkness from the minds of pupils and make them educated cultured civilians.   With all sterling qualities the teachers will make educative process effective.

          Such as a glow on individual in a profession may remain unaltered, but majority of teachers fail to retain themselves as glow on and they slowly turn into rust outs though not burnout.  In a gradual manner the glow on teacher deteriorates into first rust-cuts later into burnout persons, as it is a continuum scale.  In tune with lofty ideals a person will strive hard in his profession and successfully possess inner balance.  But the strange work style and hard trail of a person, when other men start refuting, rebuking commenting and severely opposing thus creating outer conflict. 

          To be in the society by being accepted many a person slowly gives up his ideals and attitudes just to satisfy others thus attempting to be out word balanced though conflict with in results at.

          The work style of the teachers it was appreciated by the administrator and the work style of a teacher become a exemplary to other teacher fraternity, a person will be delighted, adopt new strategies and thus very much turns into origin oriented.

          How a teacher should be in a puzzling question.  The work style of the teachers enables to classify teachers into two categories.  They are – (1) those who take risk in introducing new strategies imbibe new ideas and with a high change prone attitude may originate new ideas.  They are termed as origins.  (2) Those who shirk to invite, imitate and imbibe new strategies of teaching due to fear of criticism and failure by being totally change reluctant may blindly depend on frame work of rules in the hands of others are termed as pawn.

          Origin teachers are achievement oriented in nature and they feel potent.  On the other hand pawn teachers are affiliation oriented in nature and they feel powerless.  The new innovative strategies adopted and introduced by origin teachers, many get acceptance and consideration in real spirit by the head’s of the institutions if they posses initiating nature and consideration which are considered to be the vital aspects of effective leadership and administrative nature.  On the other hand some heads of the institutions may oppose, comment, reject some of the new adopted strategies by origin teachers as they happen to be change reluctant by being rigid in their outlook and ridicule the dashing innovative nature of high change prone teachers.  Thus acceptance for the new strategies from the administrators is vital aspect to enhance creative thoughts.  Competent measures and change prone attempts.  By nature if the administrator accepts and allow the new strategies, adopted by a teacher it will multiply the teacher’s initiative and interest and act as a catalyst for teacher effectiveness.  If the administrator himself inculcates, encouraging the subordinates by evolving his own innovative strategies, the effectiveness and work orientation will be multiplied to multitude.

          The teacher’s change-proneness, origin oriented nature and work style will not only be affected by the acceptance from the administrators but also be positively influenced by cooperative nature among faculty members.  The new innovative thorough of the teachers should not be ridiculed and made fun of by his colleagues.  They should be accepted, appreciated and admired by the faculty members.  If such positive atmosphere prevails with acceptance nature from the administrators and cooperative nature among faculty members as dual, sterling, components, the effectiveness of teaching will enhance and elevate education standards.

          The origin is positively motivated, optimistic, confident, accepting the challenge.  The pawn is negatively motivated, defensive irresolute, avoidant of challenge, origin has a feeling of commitment and competence as opposed to powerlessness of a pawn.  The origin philosophy reflects a belief that man is the maker of his destiny.  The paw philosophy reflects that a man is just a puppet in the hands of destiny.  Thus origin and pawn are exactly theoretically opposite polar aspects.

          Origin pawn philosophies affect the values, ideas and beliefs of millions of people in the world.  It is the origin philosophy but not pawn philosophy that helps a man to build his own future.  The philosophical values are built as a result of interesting social forces, experiences and beliefs.  Extreme fatalistic belies do not help a person to mend his own destiny.  An origin who sets his own goals and moves towards them will probably crave for recognition after reaching them.  An origin should acknowledge mistakes; think about the consequences of what he does; show concern for the effects of his acts and finally alter his techniques.

          Being autocratic, an origin teacher is not a tyrant or a despot.  He evidently values and natures the tendency or being origin type among pupils and creates an ‘origin’ classroom.  An origin teacher need not necessarily be democratic.  Treating children as origins is much more difficult that allowing them to decide everything.  To treat children as origins is to give them the structure and rules that will make it possible for them to develop and visualize their own goals and to learn to strive for them.

          The teacher who succeeds in creating origin orientation in his classroom develops a warm, congenial atmosphere where the children know the limitation beyond which they should not go.  Teachers’ warm acceptance of child’s liberty along with firm and definite limitation and high expectations, all these characterize an origin teacher.

 

  

 

 

 

 

Dimensions of Origin Pawn Ideology:

          The Origin Pawn Ideology is consists of Individuals’ Position, Self-Confident, Role Perception and Personal Rapport aspects as was discussed in detail in the earlier chapters.

          Kerlinger (1973) gives two main reseasons for discussing the general and research literature related to the research problem.  The first of this is to clarify the theoretical rationale of the problem.  A second reason is to tell the reader that researches have not been done on the problem.  The underlying purpose is to locate te present research in the existing body of research on the subject and to point out what it contributes to the subject.

          The major purpose of this study is to review of the available literature so as to determine the significant acts to which they are essentially related to present problem under investigation.  The knowledge emerging from the investigation would enable the investigator to avoid unintentional, duplication as well as to provide understand and the insight for the development of a logical frame work for the present problem under investigation.  Moreover, studies that have been done would help in formulating research hypothesis and indicating ‘what needs to be done will form the basis for the justification of the study under investigation’.  The purpose of this chapter is to provide a comprehensive and clear picture of the related studies and to show how the present study contributes in extending the knowledge in the attempted area under study.

          The related literature obtained on the present study is made on Change-Proneness and Pawn Ideology.  The literature is presented in two parts viz., studies attempted at abroad and in India in respect of Change-Proneness and Pawn Ideology.

Studies on Change-Proneness:

          In the post Independence era, bringing change in education and revising qualitative improvement has been a major concern of the educational planers and administrators, with this intention quite a few new institutions and organizations were established with considerable investments at national and state levels.  As a result they designed and diffused quite a large number of innovations in education.  The change was not, however, commensurate with the number of innovations and investments therein.  Hence, only stray number of researches prevails in this field related to the concept of Change-Proneness.

Andrew J.Wayne and others (2008) studied ‘Experimenting with Teacher Professional Development: Motives and Methods’.  He concludes in his study explains that the benefits offered by experiments in addressing current research needs and—for those conducting and interpreting such studies—discusses the unique methodological issues encountered when experimental methods are applied to the study of Professional Development.

C.Day; P.Sammons and Q.Gu (2008) studied ‘Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Methodologies in Research on Teachers’ lives, Work and Effectiveness: From Integration to Synergy’.  This study disclosed that the advantage of synergistic approaches is their consideration and combination of a greater range of data, resulting in more nuanced, authentic accounts and explanations of complex realities.

Gregory J.Palardy and Russel W.Rumberger (2008) studied ‘Teacher Effectiveness in First Grade: The importance of Background Qualifications, Attitudes, ad Instructional Practices for Student Learning’.  The results indicate that compared with instructional practices, background qualifications have less robust associations with achievement gains. These findings suggest that the No Child Left Behind Act’s “highly qualified teacher” provision, which screens teachers on the basis of their background qualifications, is insufficient for ensuring that classrooms are led by teachers who are effective in raising student achievement.

Karen Douglas (2009) studied ‘Sharpening our Focus in Measuring Classroom Instruction’.  The investigator has contributes to this task by sharing theoretical and practical viewpoints based on systematic programs of mixed methods research. The value of this body of research is reinforced through evidence of its impact on teaching practices and student learning.

          A glance though the major review works of Bhola (1965), Havelock (1973), Rogers and Shoemaker (1971) would reveal the absence of any research on change-proneness.  Though Bhola’s contribution ‘innovation’ research and theory.  Havelock’s attempt on planning for innovation through dissemination is on utilization of knowledge.  Rogers and Shoemakers commendable work on ‘communication of innovation – a cross culture approach, reveal some striking aspects in this field, they being very strange and novel, fail to enable other researches to make attempts and pursue their studies and as a result this remains totally in gloom and unexplored.

Alex Kostogriz, University of Queensland (2002) studied ‘Teaching Literacy in Multicultural Classrooms: Towards a Pedagogy of Third space’.   The study made on ‘dialectic’ of pedagogic spaces and the political strategy of Thirding in classroom communities of difference is examined, to suggest how this approach may be used productively in re-conceptualizing literacy pedagogy in/for conditions of multicultural life.

Amoaba Gooden, Kent State University (2008) studied ‘Community Organizing by African Caribbean People in Toronto, Ontario’.  The author argues that community organizing was an instinctive initiative of African Caribbean people. Historically, Black community organizational agenda, although owing much to its own resourcefulness and fortitude, was intimately connected to the influence and strength of the larger White population. Racism and social exclusions were the major external factors influencing the majority of African Caribbean institutional building.

Gerardo R.Lopez and Vanessa A.Vzaquez (2009) probed into ‘They don’t speak English’: Interrogating (racist) ideologies and perceptions of school personnel in a Midwestern state’.  this research finds that school officials increasingly employ assimilationist ideologies that not only privilege the English language, but view Latino students and their families as intellectually and culturally inferior.

Heather Jean Brookes, University of the Witwatersrand (1995) studied ‘Suit, Tie and a Tough of Juju- – The Ideological Construction of Africa: A Critical Discourse Analysis of News on Africa in the British Press’.  This study examines the ideological construction of Africa through a critical discourse analysis of news on Africa in the British press.  The analysis illustrates how the features of this discourse combine to produce particular meanings which give rise to a neo-colonial racist representation of Africa and Africans. The role of this discourse in reproducing the racist perceptions of Africa and Africans in Western society and in maintaining Western hegemony is discussed; and the question of this discourse’s relationship to other racist discourses in European society is also raised.

Nageswara Rao, Dr.U (1999) in his unpublished research paper presented at regional seminar at R.I.E., Mysore and International seminar at New Delhi on ‘Origin Pawn Ideology’ as component of Teacher empowerment in relation to schools effectiveness.  The major findings of the study are (1) Male teachers are more of origin type than Female Teachers.  (2) Urban Teachers are more Origin-oriented than Rural Teachers.  (3) Teachers working in Aided Schools are more of Origin Type than Teachers working in Government, Missionary and schools managed by local bodies. (4) The impact of origin type teachers who are empowered, yield good scholastic achievement and school effectiveness.

K.Ravi (2001) in his unpublished M.Ed., Degree Dissertation presented at Andhra University, Visakhapatnam on origin pawn ideology in relation to acceptance among administrators and cooperative nature among faculty members in Krishna District.            The major findings of the study are (1) Female Teachers are more origin oriented than male teachers; (2) Urban teachers possess more origin oriented nature than Rural Teachers; (3) Post-graduate trained teachers are more origin oriented than graduate trained teachers; (4) B.Ed., Assts., are more origin than secondary school teachers; (5) different span of experience do not have significance of difference among selected sample of secondary school teachers; (6) the age group below 45 years and above 45 years age groups of teachers working in secondary schools have no significance difference in the possession of origin pawn ideology and (7) regarding intervening variable i.e., type of management, teachers working in Aided schools, Missionary schools, Municipal schools and finally Zillah Parishad schools occupy first, second, third and last positions in the possession of origin pawn ideology.

There are adequate number of studies in quality and quantity on Teacher Change-Proneness and Pawn Ideology, but very few studies are found on relationship between Change-Proneness and Origin Pan Ideology among Teachers.

          In respect of the Change-Proneness of teachers – it is observed that Andrew J.Wayane (2008) attempted the benefits offered by experiments in addressing current research needs.

          C.Day and others (2008) probed into ‘Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Methodologies in research on Teachers’.

          Kristie Jones Newton (2008) investigated ‘An Extensive Analysis of pre-service elementary teachers’ knowledge of fractions’.

          Whereas, Mukhopadhayaya and Sexena (1980) studied ‘The Factors contributing to Teachers’ Change-proneness’

          While Dr.U.Nageswara Rao (1999) studied ‘The Change-Proneness among Primary School Teachers as determining factor to meet the needs of hard-to-hard’.

          In respect of studied on Origin Pan Ideology, the investigator observed the studies of Alex Kostogriz, University of Queensland (2002) on Teaching Literacy in Multicultural classrooms towards Pedagogy of Third-space’.  It is also observed that Heather Jean Brookes, University of Witwatersrand (1995) made an attempt on ‘Suit, Tie and Tough of Juju – The Ideological Construction of Africa – A Crucial discourse analysis of news on Africa in the British Press’.

          Whereas, Dr.U.Nageswara Rao (1999) investigated into ‘Origin Pawn Ideology as component of Teacher in relation to schools effectiveness’.

          Hence, this study is made to find the significance of relationship between Teacher Change-Proneness and Origin Pawn Ideology among the selected sample of Degree College Teachers in Vizianagaram District.

Definitions of the Terms Used:

          In the present study, the investigator is concerned with Teacher Change-Proneness and Origin Pawn Ideology. Definitions of these constructs are dealt with.

Teacher:

          The term ‘teacher’ in this study is used to refer the Lecturers working in Degree Colleges in Vizianagaram District only.

Teacher Change-Proneness:

          Change-Proneness, though quite recent in origin, with astonishing rapidity has become almost a catch word.  It is the tendency to accept anything, which is new, novel, to be imbibed in their style of work.  It is the state of flux and dilemma brought about by devotion to a cause, which may promote and result at expected rewards or fail to produce unexpected revolts (Uday Koundinya, 1999).  To measure the Change-Proneness of the Teachers, it was designed with four dimensions viz., Innovativeness, Hesitating Nature, Consideration and Acceptance of help.

Origin Pawn Ideology:

          The origin is positively motivated, optimistic, confident, accepting the challenge.  The pawn is negatively motivated, defensive irresolute, avoidant of challenge, origin has a feeling of commitment and competence as opposed to powerlessness of a pawn.  The origin philosophy reflects a belief that man is the maker of his destiny.  The paw philosophy reflects that a man is just a puppet in the hands of destiny.  Thus origin and pawn are exactly theoretically opposite polar aspects.

          Origin pawn philosophies affect the values, ideas and beliefs of millions of people in the world.  It is the origin philosophy but not pawn philosophy that helps a man to build his own future.  The philosophical values are built as a result of interesting social forces, experiences and beliefs.  Extreme fatalistic belies do not help a person to mend his own destiny.  An origin who sets his own goals and moves towards them will probably crave for recognition after reaching them.  An origin should acknowledge mistakes; think about the consequences of what he does; show concern for the effects of his acts and finally alter his techniques.  The object Origin Pawn Ideology is consists of four dimensions viz., Individuals’ position, Self-confident, Role Perception and Personal Rapport.

Problem:

          The problems posed in this study are, to establish relationship between Teacher Change-Proneness and Origin Pawn Ideology.  Accordingly, the statement of the present study is ‘A Study of Change-Proneness in relation Origin Pawn Ideology among the Degree College Lecturers in Vizianagaram District’.

Basic Assumptions:

The investigator started the research study with the following basic assumptions.

There will be significance of relationship between the Change-Proneness and Origin Pawn Ideology among the Degree College Lecturers.

There will be significance of difference between the dimensions of Change-Proneness.

There will be significance of difference between the dimensions of Origin Pawn Ideology.

There will be significance of difference between the Lecturers of Degree Colleges taking the Sex into consideration in their Change-Proneness and Origin Pawn Ideology.

There will be significant difference between the Lecturers of Degree Colleges taking the Locality into consideration in their Change-Proneness and Origin Pawn Ideology.

There will be significant difference between the Lecturers of Degree Colleges taking keeping the Age into consideration in their Change-Proneness and Origin Pawn Ideology.

There will be significant difference between the Lecturers of Degree Colleges taking the Marital Status into consideration in their Change-Proneness and Origin Pawn Ideology.

There will be significant difference between the Lecturers of Degree Colleges taking the Qualification into consideration in their Change-Proneness and Origin Pawn Ideology.

There will be significant difference between the Lecturers of Degree Colleges taking the Experience into consideration in their Change-Proneness and Origin Pawn Ideology.

There will be significant difference between the Lecturers of Degree Colleges taking the Type of Management into consideration in their Change-Proneness and Origin Pawn Ideology. 

There will be no significance of difference between High and Low Change-Proneness in relation to Origin Pawn Ideology among the College Teachers.

There will be no significance of difference between High and Low Origin Pawn Ideology in relation to Change-Proneness among the College Teachers.

Objectives of the Study:

    1. To find out the relationship between Teacher Change- Proneness and Origin Pawn Ideology.

    2.  To measure the Change-Proneness dimension wise

    3.  To measure the Origin Pawn Ideology dimension wise.

    4. To study the Change-Proneness variables wise i.e., Sex, Locality, Age, Marital Status, Qualification, Age and Type of Management.

    5. To study the Origin Pawn Ideology variables wise i.e., Sex, Locality, Age, Marital Status, Qualification, Age and Type of Management.

    6.  To study the significance of difference between High and Low groups of Change-Proneness in relation to Origin Pawn Ideology among College Teachers.

    7.  To study the significance of difference between High and Low groups of Origin Pawn Ideology in relation to Change-Proneness among College Teachers.

Hypotheses:

Modern Investigators are uniquely agreed that whenever possible research comes to light that it should be from a hypothesis.  The investigation into a problem without a hypothesis is aimless.

In the words of Deobold D.Van Dalen, ‘A hypothesis serves as powerful beacon that light the way for the research worker’.

          W.Stanely Jevons describes the importance of hypothesis as – ‘it serves a sort of guiding light in the world of darkness’.

          According to Good, Barr, Scates, D.E., – ‘the hypothesis serves the important function of linking together related facts and information and organizing them into wholes’.

          Carter, V. Good thinks that by guiding the investigator in further investigations.  The hypothesis serves as the investigator’s ‘eye’ in seeking answers to tentatively adopted generalizations. 

According to Travers, ‘postulates may be considered to be the fore-runners of laws’.  As more and more evidence concerning the validity of postulates is accumulated through research, may be modified if necessary, found to be accepted, be called laws.

          In the present study the investigator has proposed the following hypotheses for testing the item wise identified problems of the present research study.

There is no significance of relationship between Teacher Change-Proneness and Origin Pawn Ideology. 

There is no significance of difference between the dimensions of Teacher Change-Proneness.

There is no significance of difference between the dimensions of Teacher Origin Pawn Ideology.

Male and Female Teachers do not differ significantly in their Teacher Change-Proneness and Origin Pawn Ideology.

Rural and Urban area Teachers do not differ significantly in their Teacher Change-Proneness and Origin Pawn Ideology.

Below 40 years and above 40 years Age Teachers do not differ significantly in their Teacher Change-Proneness and Origin Pawn Ideology.

Post-graduate, Post-graduate with M.Phil., and Post-graduate with Ph.D., teachers do not differ significantly in their Teacher Change-Proneness and Origin Pawn Ideology.

Below 20 years and above 20 years experience teachers do not differ significantly in their Change-Proneness and Origin Pawn Ideology.

Aided and Unaided Degree College Teachers do not differ significantly in their Teacher Change-Proneness and Origin Pawn Ideology.

High and Low Change-Proneness groups in relation to Origin Pawn Ideology of College Teachers do not differ significantly.

High and Low Origin Pawn Ideology groups in relation to Change-Proneness of College Teachers do not differ significantly.

Population:

There is about 48 Degree Colleges under different type of management in Vizianagaram District.   According to Cornell sampling is – ‘the process by which a relatively small number of individuals are selected or analyzed in order to find out something about the entire population or the universe from which it was selected.

The essence of sampling is the selection of a part (sample) from the whole (population) in order to make inferences about the whole.

Sample:

‘Any number of measures of a population that have been selected to represent the population, a sample is used to study the properties of a larger group of which it is a part’.

The present study is proximal, time specific and context specific in nature.  It will be very difficult for the investigator to take up this research study among all the Lecturers of Degree Colleges in Vizianagaram District. 

The investigator felt that it is almost impossible to make trips to visit the Degree Colleges, which are far off.  Hence, it has been decided to meet the Lecturers instead of mailing the questionnaires.  As the problem of research proposal is pertinent to the sample of Lecturers but not with the students, any of the Institutions may be selected for the study.  Hence, the investigator confined this study to the Degree Colleges in around of Vizianagaram City.  Thus the Lecturers population of Degree Colleges will be the sample for the humble piece of research study.

Further, the study has been conducted among the selected sample of Lecturers taking the variables like Sex, Locality, Age, Marital Status, Qualification, Experience and Type of Management of the Institution are taken into consideration.

Administration of Tools:

          After developing and standardized the above tools of the present study following the predictive validity as suggested by John, W.Best and James V.Kahn, the final and fresh scales are prepared for the final study and to administer with a specific instruction.  Each statement in both the tools are followed Likert method of summated rating technique.  This technique is used because it is most straightforward technique.  A clear instruction was given to the respondents to express their opinion by putting a tick mark against the response category to which they agreed with.  Each scale is started with personal data page.  These two scales are administered to 150 teachers working in different areas and under different management in Vizianagaram of Andhra Pradesh.

Collection of Data:

           For collecting the data, the investigator visited each institution and administered these scales to the teachers personally.  They advised to put their name, sex, locality, qualification, experience, age, marital status and type of management of the institution etc., in the place provided in the personal data sheet of each scale.

          Required instructions are given in the first page of these two tools.  The investigator requested the teachers to follow those instructions, which responding to the tools.  Teachers are further advised not to leave any item of the too.  Most of the teachers filled the tools on the spot and return to the investigator.  Thus these two tools collected are scored according to the statistical procedure.

Scoring:

The responses scores in respect of Teacher Change Proneness Descriptive Questionnaire (CPDQ) for all 30 items – Scoring from 4 to 1 for five responses i.e., Always (4), Occasionally (3), Seldom (2) and Never (1) and for negative items the weightage will be awarded from 1 to 4 with the help of the scoring key.  The probable score may be ranged from 30 to 120. 

Limitations:

          This study is limited to only teachers of Degree Colleges in Vizianagaram District of Andhra Pradesh.

          Teachers who are teaching the methodology subjects are included in the sample and P.E.Ts, Craft teachers and others are excluded.

          To measure the Teacher Change-Proneness in which four dimensions are confined viz., – Innovativeness, Hesitating nature, Consideration and Acceptance of help are only considered in this research study.

          Similarly, to measure the Teacher Origin Pawn Ideology Scale is confined to four dimensions viz., Individuals position, Self-confident, Role Perception and Personal Rapport are considered in this study.

Analysis of the results of any study should be based on suitable statistical treatment.  The measurement of variables undertaken for this study should be presented clearly and precisely.  Accordingly, the results are analyzed in three-phase manner.  The first phase consists of testing of major hypotheses, the second phase consists of testing of subsidiary hypotheses pertaining to significance of difference between various demographic variables in respect of Teacher Change-Proneness and Teacher Origin Pawn Ideology and the third phase consists of testing hypotheses pertaining to significance of difference between high and low groups of respondents in their Change-Proneness and Origin Pawn Ideology aspects.

After processing the analysis based on the data obtained from the respondents, the following conclusions are arrived at.

Conclusions:

          There is positive significance of relationship between the Change-Proneness and Origin Pawn Ideology among the Degree College Teachers.

          There is positive significance of relationship between the dimensions of Teacher Change-Proneness.

          There is positive significance of relationship between the Dimensions of Origin Pawn Ideology.

          There is positive significance of relationship between inters and intra dimensions of Change Proneness and Origin Pawn Ideology.

Change-Proneness:

          Male and Female Teachers do differed significantly. The mean value obtained by Male Teachers is greater than that of Female Teachers.

          Rural and Urban locality Teachers do differed significantly. The mean value obtained by Urban locality Teachers is greater than that of Rural locality Teachers.

          Below 40 years age Teachers and above 40 years age Teachers do differed significantly.  The mean value obtained by above 40 years age Teachers is greater than that of their counterparts i.e., below 40 years age Teachers.

          Married and Unmarried Teachers do not differed significantly.

          Post-graduate and Post-graduate with M.Phil., Teachers do not differed significantly.

          Post-graduate and Post-graduate with Ph.D., Teachers do not differed significantly.

          Post-graduate with M.Phil., and Post-graduate with Ph.D., Teachers do not differed significantly.

          Below 20 years experience and above 20 years experience Teachers do differed significantly.  The mean value obtained by below 20 years experience Teachers is greater than that of above 20 years experience Teachers.

          Aided and Unaided College Teachers do differ significantly.  The mean value obtained by the Unaided College Teachers is greater than the Teachers of Aided College Teachers.

Origin Pawn Ideology:

          There is significance of difference between Male and Female Teachers.  The mean value obtained by Female Teachers is greater than that of Male Teachers.

          There is no significance of difference between Rural and Urban are College Teachers.

          There is significance of difference between below 40 years experience and above 40 years experience College Teachers.  The mean value obtained by above 40 years experience College Teachers is greater than that of below 40 years experience College Teachers.

          There is significance of difference between Married and Unmarried College Teachers.  The mean value obtained by Unmarried College Teachers is greater than that of Married College Teachers.

          There is significance of difference between Post-graduate and Post-graduate with M.Phil., College Teachers.  Teachers of Post-graduate with M.Phil., possessed higher mean score than their counterparts i.e., Post-graduate College Teachers.

          There is no significance of difference between the College Teachers of Post-graduate with M.Phil., and Post-graduate with Ph.D.

          There is significance of difference between below 20 years experience College Teachers and above 20 years experience College Teachers.  The mean value obtained by the above 20 years experience College Teachers is greater than that of below 20 years experience College Teachers.

          There is significance of difference between the College Teachers of above 20 years experience and below 20 years experience category.  The mean value obtained by above 20 years experience College Teachers is greater than that of their counterparts i.e., below 20 years experience College Teachers.

          There is significance of difference between Aided and Unaided College Teachers.  The mean value obtained by Unaided College Teachers is greater than that of Aided College Teachers.

          There is significance of difference between High and Low Change-Proneness in relation to Origin Pawn Ideology.  The High Change-Proneness group of College Teachers possessed higher mean value than their counterparts i.e., Low Change-Proneness group of College Teachers.

          There is significance of difference between High and Low Origin Pawn Ideology in relation to Change-Proneness.  The High Origin Pawn Ideology group of College Teachers possessed higher mean value than their counterparts i.e., Low Origin Pawn Ideology group of College Teachers.

Implications of the Study:

          From the above study it is observed that though there is positive relationship between the aspects Change Proneness and Origin Pawn Ideology but it is found low.  This indicates that though the Change Prone among the College Teachers is in advantage position, their Origin is less in nature.  This indicates that the College Teachers have confined their profession in regular routine manner instead of introducing new concepts and techniques while in their Classroom Teaching.

          Regarding comparison of Change-Proneness among the College Teachers with reference to variables viz., Sex, Locality, Age, Marital Status, Qualification, Experience and Type of Management, it is found that the Male, Urban area, Above 40 years Age, Below 20 years experience and Unaided College Teachers are possessed higher Change-Prone than their Counterparts, which is an indication to the academic administrators to examine the differentiation among the College Teachers so as to enhance the quality among the faculty members.

          Regarding comparison Origin Pawn Ideology among the College Teachers with reference to the variables viz., Female, above 40 years age, Unmarried, Post-graduate with M.Phil., Post-graduate with Ph.D., above 20 years experience and Unaided category College Teachers possessed higher means than their counterparts, which is an indication to the curriculum designers as well as academic administrators to consider these results and it is essential to provide better environment and encourage the faculty members to adopt new techniques of classroom teaching so as to enhance the quantity and quality in methods of teaching.

          Regarding the comparison between high and low category of College Teachers in respect of Change-Proneness and Origin Pan Ideology aspects, it is found that the mean differences are very high.  This indicates that though the College Teachers possessed more change-prone, but their ideology and new techniques in teaching subjects could not be attempted on account of various academic and administrative reasons.  Therefore, this is very essential to reconsider to change the policies and practices in respect of academic activities of these institutions so as to enable the teacher to produce better citizens to the Indian society.

Suggestions for further Research:

          An analytical study of Personality as an allied correlate of Change-Proneness may be attempted.

          A study of Origin Pawn Ideology and its impact on Professional Competency among Secondary School Teachers may be conducted.

          A Comparative study of Change-Proneness among competent teachers may be attempted.

          A Study of teacher origin pawn ideology and professional pleasure is influencing factors to enhance teacher effectiveness.

          A Study of Change-Proneness and effective classroom practices as influencing factors to enhance the quality.

          A comparative study of adjustment and Origin Pawn Ideology among high and low creative teachers may be conducted.

          A study of Change-Proneness and Burnout as stumbling blocks in their Professional competency may be conducted.

          A study of Origin Pawn Ideology and its impact on Academic Achievement may be conducted.

          A similar attempt may be made on Change-Proneness in relation to teaching competencies may be conducted.

          A analytical study of Work Orientation and Origin Pawn Ideology may be useful attempt.

 

 

 

 

 

 

          An investigatory probe into the aspect which influence the Change-prone and Institutional complex may be studied.

          Thus, the exhaustive list of suggestions, which feasible for further researches in the related areas of this research problem, which will definitely enhance the vistas in these areas, though all these will constitute a speck of knowledge in the ocean of wisdom.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

Aggarwal, J.C., ‘Educational Research – An Introduction’, Arya Book Depot., New Delhi.

 

Aggarwal, J.C. (1964), ‘Thought on Education’, Arya Book Depot, New Delhi, 1964.

 

Alex Kostogriz, University of Queensland (2002), ‘Teaching Literacy in Multicultural Classrooms: Towards a Pedagogy of Third Space’, Paper Presentation at the Annual Conference of the Australian Association for Research in Education, December, 2002, Sage Journal (online).

 

All Port, G.W., ‘Personality Psychological Interpretation’, Mc.Graw Hill Book Co., New York.

 

Amoaba Gooden, Kent State University, USA k(2008), ‘Community Organizing by African Caribbean People in Toronto, Ontario’, Journal of Black Studies, Vol.38, No.3, Pp.413-426, 2008, Sage Journal (online) DOI: 10.1177/ 0021934707309134.

 

Anastasi, A., (1961), ‘Psychological Testing’, The Mac.Millan & Co., New York.

 

Andrew J.Wayne, American Institutes for Research, Washington DC,; Kwang Suk Yoon; Peizhu; Stephanie Cronen and Michael S.Garet, (2008), ‘Experimenting with Teacher Professional Developmet: Motives and Methods’, Journal of Educational Researcher, Vol.37, No.8, Pp.469-479, 2008, Sage Publications (online) DOI:10.3102/0013189X08327154.

 

Barr, A.S., (1961) ‘The measurement prediction of teaching efficiency – A Summary of investigation, Journal of Experimental Education.

 

 

 

 

 

Best, J.W., (1990),  ‘Research in Education’, 6th Edition, Prentice Hall of India Pvt., Ltd., New Delhi.

 

Bigge & Hunt (1962), ‘Psychological foundations of educati

*n.v.s.suryanarayana **goteti Himabindu
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